How does the arrival of spring rainfall affect agricultural crops?



In March, April, and May, Uzbekistan experiences higher than usual precipitation, which positively impacts agricultural crop development. This increased rainfall helps boost water reserves and mitigates water shortages for crop maintenance throughout the year, as reported by the Ministry of Agriculture.

The Ministry has indicated that 38.2 billion cubic meters of water will be needed for agricultural irrigation this year, with 30.2 billion cubic meters allocated for main crops and 8.0 billion cubic meters for household plots and secondary crops. The rainfall in the spring months, combined with existing water reserves in the reservoirs and snow reserves in the Amudarya and Syrdarya basin mountains, is expected to address 30-35 percent of the water deficit.

"There are numerous benefits of this persistent rainfall for our agriculture, especially for vegetables and potatoes. The rain helps to clean dust off the leaves, enhancing plant respiration and accelerating photosynthesis," the report noted.

When the air dries and temperatures rise, plants enter an energy conservation mode, forming a thin film over their breathing pores to slow evaporation. During the rainy season, increased air humidity and lower temperatures cause these pores to open, allowing plants to absorb nutrients more effectively.

“Weak nitrogen compounds produced by lightning and sunlight are absorbed by plants via raindrops, facilitating rapid external nutrition uptake.

Rainwater, being soft due to the absence of hard salts like hydrocarbonates, calcium sulfates, and magnesium chlorides, doesn't disrupt water and gas exchange, offering an advantage in plant growth.

With a pH level akin to neutral water, rainwater positively influences vital plant processes,” the report stated. 

Moreover, adverse effects of oil spills on crucial sectors like agriculture, horticulture, and viticulture are notable, exacerbated by this year's weather conditions conducive to the proliferation of harmful organisms, including disease-causing pathogens and pests. Persistent precipitation, high humidity, and temperatures ranging from +20 to +25°C create optimal environments for pathogens, leading to diseases such as powdery mildew, calmaraz, black bacterial cancer, and moniliasis in seed orchards, while grain orchards face ailments like klyasterosporiosis, moniliasis, powdery mildew, and peach leaf wilting.

Combatting these diseases necessitates the use of fungicides like difenoconazole, azoxystrobin, penconazole, thiophanate-methyl, pyraclostrobin + difenoconazole. Additionally, humid conditions foster the development of garden pests; for instance, in seed orchards (apples, pears, quinces), pests such as apple red aphids, apple green aphids, California and purple scales, various moths, and apple fruit eaters thrive.

Similarly, fruit orchards (apricots, peaches, cherries, plums, etc.) face infestations of apple and plum worms, caterpillars, aphids, apricot and cherry maggots, and other pests.

Furthermore, conducive environments for vine pests like grape leaf weevils, vine mealybugs, and Comstock worms are fostered in vineyards. It is advised to employ solutions containing indoxacarb, thiacloprid, and deltamethrin to combat these pests effectively.

Climatologist Erkin Abdulahatov notes that this year's elevated humidity and reduced air temperature during the growing season are causing agricultural produce, fruits, and vegetables to ripen later than usual.

"In a nation like ours, where a significant portion of the population's income relies on agriculture, individuals find themselves financially strained, as the period of financial scarcity now occurs later than the typical seasonal timeframe," explains the researcher. 

Abdulahatov identifies the primary factors contributing to financial strain as the delayed onset of spring in the agricultural sector, economic conditions, monthly earnings, and actual inflation rates.


O'zbekiston yog'ingarchilik qishloq xo'jaligi

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